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  • Matt Crumpton

Ep 18: The Medical Evidence Part 6 (Ballistics, Body Alteration, and Burkley)


EPISODE 18


Over the last few episodes we’ve been focused on analyzing the medical evidence related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. First, we looked at the single bullet theory, including the bullet itself, Exhibit CE 399 and the wounds that bullet supposedly caused in President Kennedy and Governor Connally. Then, we analyzed the record regarding Kennedy’s head wound, the autopsy report (including the photos and x-rays), the Zapruder film, and allegations of forged photos, forged x-rays, and even a forged Zapruder film.


Today, we’ll look at a few more related questions. Does the alignment of Kennedy and Connally in the limo make the single bullet theory impossible? What does the ballistic evidence tell us? And could President Kennedy’s body have been surgically altered between Dallas and Bethesda?


THEME SONG


Limo Alignment and SBT Trajectory


Conspiracy theorists have long argued that the alignment of Kennedy and Connally in the presidential limousine required that the bullet would’ve had to turn to the right in mid-air to hit Connally. But Warren Report defenders say that Kennedy and Connally were perfectly aligned from Oswald’s point of view on the 6th floor window. Who is right about this?


There are really two arguments related to alignment: vertical and lateral. The vertical issue, conspiracy theorists argue, is that the bullet would’ve had to change trajectories from going downward when the shot was fired from the 6th floor window to the bullet going upwards after it enters Kennedy’s body below the base of his neck so that it could exit at Kennedy’s throat. But, really, this is just an argument about where the entrance wound on Kennedy’s back is located. If the back wound is placed at the base of the neck as the Warren Report says, then the vertical trajectory makes sense. But, if the back wound is lower as the Sibert and O’Neill Report and the autopsy facing sheet indicates, then the Warren Report’s vertical trajectory would not work.


The lateral trajectory of the bullet is more of an open question. Warren Report defenders want to put Connally further to the inside of the car and Kennedy on the edge of the car. That way the shots line up better. Conspiracy theorists want to put Connally closer to the door so that the shot doesn’t line up and it would have to turn in mid-air.


Robert Groden, an HSCA photo expert, created a famous sketch that shows the bullet exiting Kennedy’s body and making a turn to the right, then to the left, before entering Connally’s body.[1] But, Groden’s sketch is not accurate ifConnally was sitting about a half a foot inside of where Kennedy was sitting.


Warren Report defenders say Connally was not seated directly in front of Kennedy. Instead, they say that Kennedy and Connally were offset so that the bullet would’ve just gone straight through Kennedy into Connally with no magic was required. Connally’s jump seat in the limo was 6 inches from the door and also three inches lower than the back seat (according to testimony from Thomas Kelley of the Secret Service). But, according to a schematic of the limo provided by the HSCA, the jump seat was only 2.5 inches from the door – which puts Connally closer to the door than the 6 inches in the Warren Report.[2] But, let’s not get carried away. We’re only talking about a 3 inch difference here.


Vincent Bugliosi says that when you put Connally in the correct position, and look at the Zapruder film to see that Connally was turned to his right at the time he was shot, there is no need for the single bullet to be magical. The bullet simply traveled on the trajectory that it was on and kept going straight.[3]


As I dug in to this topic of limo seat alignment, I wasn’t able to definitively confirm or debunk Bugliosi’s argument. Part of the problem is that to determine where Kennedy and Connally were sitting in the limo, we have to rely on the photos that are available, which are not exactly precise. There are photos that appear to show Connally with his arm over the door of the car, which makes it seem like he was pretty close to the car door and was not sitting as far inside the car as Single Bullet Theory defenders claim.[4] The closer Connally is to the limo door, the more likely that the bullet would have had to turn in mid-air.


The HSCA got it right on this business of trying to match up exactly where Connally was sitting at the moment the shot hit. The HSCA had trouble matching the trajectory of the shots from the Schoolbook Depository with the trajectory from Kennedy to Connally. The HSCA report on this topic said QUOTE “Ideally, of course, the two trajectories would line up precisely, but this standard was considered unrealistically high because Connally’s position at the time of the shot could not be established.”[5]


What Does the Ballistics Evidence Tell Us?


Ballistics is the forensic science of dealing with firearms and projectiles. What does the ballistic evidence tell us about this case? According to the Warren Report, the following pieces of ballistic evidence were found:[6]


- 3 shell casings near the SE corner 6th floor window of the Schoolbook Depository (that’s where the Sniper’s Nest was);


- 2 bullet fragments were found in the front seat of the presidential limo. One was the nose end of a bullet and weighed 44.6 grains. The other was the base portion of a bullet which weighed 21 grains. 3 additional lead particles were found in the limo weighing between 7/10 and 9/10 of a grain;


- Bullet fragments that remained in Governor Connally’s wrist were found;[7]


- Bullet fragments were found in President Kennedy’s brain.[8]


- And finally, CE 399 – the so-called magic bullet - was found on a stretcher near the ground floor elevator in Parkland Hospital on the afternoon of the shooting.


According to the Warren Report, while all of the bullet fragments in the limo appeared to be of similar metallic composition, it was not possible to determine whether two or more fragments came from the same bullet.[9]


When the HSCA reopened the case, they tried to determine if the bullet fragments could be tied to Oswald’s rifle. To do that, HSCA expert Vincent Guinn used a process known as neutron activation analysis, or NAA. And Guinn concludedafter conducting these NAA tests that the bullet fragments found in the vehicle are likely from Carcano ammunition.[10]This HSCA expert report is still cited today by many Warren Report defenders as conclusive proof that the bullets that hit Kennedy and Connally came from Oswald’s rifle.


The problem with relying on NAA science is that it has since been completely discredited. In 2004, the National Academy of Sciences warned the FBI to stop using the NAA process, which is also called comparative bullet lead analysis.[11] The process was not reliable because error rates from using it were found to be as high as 33%.[12] In 2005, the FBI stopped using NAA.[13]


So, the scientific analysis that was supposed to tie the bullet fragments to Carcano ammunition is no longer reliable. But that doesn’t necessarily mean there was a conspiracy. It just means that some of the strongest evidence that once existed to convict Oswald - specifically to tie the bullet fragments to Carcano bullets - has to be thrown out.


There is another ballistics related argument that is made by Warren Report defenders to demonstrate that the Single Bullet Theory must be true. It’s related to the shape of the bullet wound in Governor Connally’s back. The argument goes that the wound was ovoid, not circular. And, because Connally’s bullet wound was ovoid, it proves that the bullet hit something in flight to make it lose its stability.[14]


This idea that the bullet that hit Connally was tumbling in the air, like a wounded duck football toss, is called yaw – Y A W - , which is defined as “to twist or tumble around a vertical axis.” Whether the bullet was “in yaw” is important because 1) it would be consistent with Connally’s wound size being oval shaped, 2) if it was in yaw, then that means it must have hit something first, which would be Kennedy in this case, and 3) the yawing bullet would be consistent with the back end of CE 399 being damaged.


The problem with the yawing bullet theory is that the shape of Connally’s wound could be explained by the angle of Connally’s body at the time of impact. Also, the shape of President Kennedy’s back wound, which indisputably had not hit any other objects prior to penetrating Kennedy’s back, is more ovoid than Connally’s wound - as shown on Kennedy’s jacket. Kennedy’s bullet hole was 1X1.5cm and Connally’s was 1.5X1.7cm.[15] So, compared to Kennedy’s wound Connally’s is closer to a circle than an oval.


What can fiber analysis of the wounds tell us about the credibility of the Single Bullet Theory? According to Dallas doctors Robert Shaw and Dr. Charles Gregory, there were no fibers from Kennedy’s clothes that were carried into the wound.[16] However, Governor Connally’s wrist wound did have cloth fibers. Thus, it’s harder to believe that the bullet that hit governor Connally could have been the same bullet that hit Kennedy because we would expect to see fibers in Kennedy’s wound as well if there were fibers in Connally’s wound. On the other hand, the Warren Report claims that the cloth fibers on the front of Kennedy’s shirt were protruding outwards, which would tend to support the idea that the bullet exited from his throat.[17]


Body Alteration


Some conspiracy theorists claim that Kennedy’s body was surgically altered between Dallas and Bethesda. This claim seems wild, and is viewed that way by Warren Report defenders. But, is there any evidence for it?


In 1988, David Lifton published a book called Best Evidence arguing that surgery was conducted on Kennedy’s body between the time it left Dallas and the autopsy occurred in Bethesda. His thesis is supported by an unexplainable line in the Sibert and O’Neill FBI report about the autopsy. As a reminder, Sibert and O’Neill were J. Edgar Hoover’s eyes and ears inside the autopsy room. The report was letting Hoover know what they saw. The report says QUOTE “it was apparent that a tracheotomy had been performed as well as surgery of the head area, namely in the top of the skull.”[18]Lifton believes that Kennedy’s body was removed from the bronze casket it was placed in at Parkland and put in a shipping casket so that the conspirators could conduct the surgery without most people knowing.


This idea does sound crazy. But, there is a possibility that there was surgery done to the head based on the Sibert and O’Neill report, which we discussed earlier. Sibert tends to think that Humes mentioning surgery in the head was just a mistake and O’Neill was not sure what Humes meant. So, it is possible that there was surgery, but the mere mention of it in the FBI agents’ written report does not prove it.


Do we have any other indications of potential body alteration other than the mysterious line in the Sibert and O’Neill report?


According to Al Wright, who helped put Kennedy’s body in the casket at Parkland Hospital, the body was placed into an expensive bronze casket:


“It was an expensive bronze colored type casket. One of the most expensive that we had in stock. It was white satin lining inside the casket. We wrapped him in one of the sheets and then placed him in the casket.”[19]


But Bethesda medical technician Paul O’Connor, says that the body that arrived in the morgue came in a cheap shipping casket.


“The morgue door burst open and 6 or 7 men came carrying this casket in and set it on the floor next to the autopsy table. As I remember, this casket was a cheap shipping type of casket. What I mean by shipping casket, it’s not very ornamental. It’s a very plain casket.”[20]


So, what’s going on here? We have testimony that the body left Dallas in one casket and arrived in Bethesda in another. The question is why would the casket be different? This is where we go deeper into the conspiracy rabbit hole and take a look at claims related to mortician John Liggett.


Liggett’s story was featured in the documentary series The Men Who Killed Kennedy. According to his co-workers, he was extremely skilled at plastic surgery and would often have to suddenly call off of jobs without discussing where he was going. Liggett’s ex-wife, whom he was married to in 1963, believes that Liggett was somehow involved in working on Kennedy’s body.


She says that on the day of the assassination, Liggett was called to go to Parkland Hospital immediately. Later he called her from Parkland to tell her the President was dead. She asked him if his funeral home got the job and he said it did not. (By the way, this is true. We know that Gawler’s funeral home got the job.) But, for some reason, even though his funeral home didn’t get the job to work on Kennedy, Liggett told his wife he still had work to do:


“He said, I’ve got a lot of work to do, don’t try to call me. I’ll call you as soon as I can. And it was about 24 hours before I heard from him. He came home and he walked in the door. And when I saw him he physically looked like he had really been through a very traumatic experience. His clothes were disarrayed and that was out of character from him.[21]


After he returned, John Liggett then told his family that they had to get out of town for a while until everything blows over. The family then left the house immediately, going to Austin and San Antonio, and checking in to a motel in Corpus Cristi on Sunday morning.


“That’s when he saw Oswald killed by Jack Ruby. The minute he saw that he looked at me and said, “Everything’s okay now.” And you could just see his face, it was like all the pressure had been taken off of him.”[22]


The family then returned home and, according to his ex-wife, Liggett came in to a large sum of money. On top of that, his step-daughter says that he was friends with David Ferrie, a shadowy Mafia and CIA figure from New Orleans who is prominently featured in the movie JFK played by Joe Pesci. Apparently, Ferrie and Liggett were in the Civil Air Patrol together.[23] I tried to independently confirm that Liggett and Ferrie were in the Civil Air Patrol together. I wasn’t able to find anything that confirmed or denied it.


The tale of John Liggett is a doozie and covers more than we have time to get into. It’s another one of those stories that was popularized by the documentary series The Men Who Killed Kennedy. After the documentary came out, the Liggett story suffered a blow (sort of). The documentary had also claimed that John Liggett’s brother, Melvin Liggett, was connected to Jack Ruby and was also involved in the assassination.


Melvin Liggett sued The History Channel for defamation after it aired the documentary based on the documentary’s claim that Melvin Liggett knew Ruby and he was involved in the Kennedy assassination. The History Channel retracted its statement and the lawsuit was settled.[24] But, all the Melvin Liggett defamation suit incident proves is that Melvin Liggett was not involved – or maybe that the History Channel didn’t want to fight the claim. The defamation lawsuit didn’t relate to claims about John Liggett.


Are John Liggett’s ex-wife and step-daughter full on crazy such that they would fabricate information? Or, are they telling the truth? That’s the question. I don’t know the answer. But, John Liggett could be the missing link in the David Lifton body alteration theory. Or, he could just be a random mortician with a big imagination – and a lying ex-wife and step-daughter.


Doug Horne’s Body Swap Theory


FBI Agents Sibert and O’Neill, echo what the official story says about the arrival of President Kennedy’s body at Bethesda. They say that Air Force One landed at Andrews Air Force Base, at which point the heavy bronze casket was unloaded from the plane and into a gray Navy ambulance. From there, Sibert and O’Neill followed the ambulance to Bethesda. It arrived at 7:05.[25] Sibert and O’Neill personally opened the back doors of the ambulance at Bethesda and were present when the casket was opened. According to them, there was no possibility that the body was switched between Andrews Air Force Base and Bethesda because they were with the casket the entire time.[26]


But despite these assurances from Sibert and O’Neill that a body swap could not have happened, many Warren Report critics, led by former ARRB investigator, Doug Horne, believe that there was a separate pre-examination autopsy that occurred before the official autopsy. Horne thinks that during the pre-examination autopsy, Kennedy’s body was altered as the doctors removed bullet fragments from his brain that would show shots to the front.[27]


There are three things to focus on as we talk about the potential casket switch-a-roo: the type of casket the president arrived in, the time of the arrival, and the vehicle that brought the president to the morgue. The official story is that the body arrived around 7:05 in a bronze casket (just like the one that left Parkland) transported by a gray ambulance. The Doug Horne theory, on the other hand, involves a cheap shipping casket in a black hearse arriving thirty minutes earlier at 6:35.


According to Horne, President Kennedy’s body was taken out of the heavy bronze casket and put into a body bag and shipping casket on Air Force One while Lyndon Johnson was being sworn in.[28] This would have been the only time that the president’s body was left unattended. Once Air Force One landed, the heavy bronze casket was taken off of the plane and put into the Gray Navy Ambulance, which was accompanied by Sibert and O’Neill.


After President Johnson’s helicopter departed from Andrews Air Force Base - and all of the press was gone, Horne says there was another chopper that picked up Kennedy’s body in the shipping casket. That chopper then landed in a parking lot at the Officer’s Club near Bethesda Naval Medical Center. At that point, the casket was transported from the parking lot to Bethesda in a black civilian hearse. The result of this, according to Horne, is that the actual body of Kennedy was able to be manipulated for about thirty minutes before the empty casket arrived.[29]


While this idea may seem a little out there, you have to remember that Horne was on the front lines of the ARRB and spent years in an official capacity retrieving the military and medical records related to the Kennedy assassination from the relevant government agencies that had them. If anyone would know about this, you would think it would be Doug Horne. This is obviously a huge claim that requires a lot of evidence if we are to take it seriously. So, what is that evidence?


As we heard before, medical technician, Paul O’Connor says that the president’s body arrived in a pinkish gray shipping casket. He also says that, around 8pm, he heard a helicopter land in the parking lot near the Officer’s Club, which was not a designated landing place for a helicopter and was not normal.[30] But, Paul O’Connor did not mention anything about helicopters in his interview with the HSCA investigators in 1977. He told them that a pink shipping casket arrived around 8pm.[31] The problem with the 8pm timeline for a chopper and shipping casket arrival is that it would have had to arrive at 6:30 or so for this timeline to make sense.


James Jenkins, a lab technician who assisted on Kennedy’s autopsy, said that the president arrived in a shipping casket, like the ones used to transport bodies in. But, unlike O’Connor, Jenkins did not hear any helicopters and he doesn’t remember a body bag, but he wasn’t specifically involved in taking the body out of the casket.[32]


Jerrol Custer told the ARRB that he was told by the duty officer, who Custer cannot identify, that a helicopter had landed shortly before the body arrived and then the body was to be loaded onto an ambulance and brought to Bethesda.[33] So, Custer corroborates the idea that people were talking about a helicopter landing, but it’s really hearsay since he doesn’t have first hand knowledge. But Custer did see a black hearse at the loading dock before the gray ambulance arrived.[34] Custer also told the ARRB that he remembers seeing two caskets – a shipping casket and a bronze ceremonial casket.[35]


Dennis David, the senior enlisted man on duty at Bethesda the night of the autopsy, says that the body arrived in a black hearse with civilian license plates.[36] David wasn’t clear on the arrival time of the shipping casket. He said that five or six men in blue suits also got out of the hearse. He saw the gray shipping casket be removed from the black hearse.[37]


David says that sometime after Kennedy’s body arrived in the black hearse, around 7:00, he then saw a gray navy ambulance and an entourage of cars behind it. David knows this must have been the ambulance with the bronze casket because Mrs. Kennedy and Robert Kennedy were in it and he saw them get dropped off at the front door.[38] David says he made a report that included the black hearse arriving with the shipping casket and gave this report to Dr. Boswell. But the report, if it existed, has never been seen since.[39]


In addition to the testimony and recollections of eyewitnesses, are there any documents to support Horne’s theory?


Marine Corp sargeant, Roger Boyajian, was responsible for leading a detail assisting with security at Bethesda that night. He wrote an after action report about his activities, which he still had in his possession when Horne, who was with the ARRB at the time, contacted him.[40] Boyajian provided the ARRB with a copy of this report, which said that the president’s body arrived at Bethesda at 6:35pm – supporting the timeline for Horne’s theory.[41]


There is also a document from Gawler’s Funeral Home that goes into the details about the logistics of Gawler’s providing embalming and other funeral services for the president.[42] In this document, it says that, originally, Gawler’s was going to send a hearse to pick up the president’s body from Andrews Air Force Base and take him to Bethesda. However, the document goes on to say that the orders were rescinded and Gawler’s was told that a Navy Ambulance would take the president to Bethesda instead. To me, this document just confirms the official story. It shows that there was a plan for Gawler’s to take the body, but that is not what happened according to the document.


To recap, the only person who is on record as having personal knowledge of hearing helicopters is Paul O’Connor. But, O’Connor says he heard the chopper around 8pm, which would seem to go against the timeline of Horne’s theory, which has Kennedy’s body arriving at 6:35 in a shipping casket and black hearse. We do have Jerrol Custer confirming the helicopter story, but he is just saying what he heard someone tell him. Custer didn’t hear the chopper himself. We would expect to have at least one or two other people with actual knowledge of the chopper landing if it actually landed – especially if the place where the chopper landed is not normally used to land helicopters. So, when it comes to the helicopter transport from Andrews Air Force Base to Bethesda, I just don’t believe there is sufficient evidence to prove it.


However, there is ample support for the ideas that both a shipping casket and a bronze ceremonial casket were present at the autopsy in the form of testimony from Paul O’Connor, James Jenkins, Jerrol Custer, and Dennis David. Although, the extent to which the shipping casket was gray or pinkish gray is unclear. Custer and David also say that they saw a black hearse. Custer just saw the hearse at the shipping dock. David actually saw the shipping casket come out of the hearse. The presence of this black hearse is unaccounted for in the record. And David sees both the black hearse and the gray ambulance. What does all of this mean?


Putting all of this together is not easy to do. It seems that there IS support for there being both a shipping casket and a bronze casket, and even a black hearse. But, the timeline for Horne’s theory requires a helicopter to be able to fly from Andrews Air Force Base with the shipping casket much faster than the Gray ambulance and its entourage could drive to make it to Bethesda with the bronze casket. O’Connor is the only one on record talking about it and he says it was around 8pm, which is an hour and a half later than is required for Horne’s theory to work.


But that still doesn’t explain what Custer, David, Jenkins and O’Connor, saw. It does appear that there was potentially something strange going on at Bethesda that night. It’s just a real challenge to reliably piece together what it was.


Admiral Burkley


We can’t talk about the Kennedy Assassination medical evidence without mentioning the role of Kennedy’s personal physician, Admiral George Burkley. Burkley was the only person who was present at both Parkland Hospital as they attempted to save the president’s life and Bethesda Naval Center where the autopsy was conducted.


Burkley drafted and signed President Kennedy’s death certificate. That document says the president was “struck in the head by an assassin’s bullet and a second wound occurred in the posterior back at about the level of the third thoracic vertebra.”[43] The third thoracic vertebra or T3 is at the upper back, but would be lower than the throat wound (which causes problems for the Single Bullet Theory).


During an oral history for the JFK Presidential Library, Admiral Burkley was asked “Do you agree with the Warren Report on the number of bullets that entered the President’s body?” Burkley answered, “I would not care to be quoted on that.”[44]


A few years later, Admiral Burkley, through his lawyer, contacted the HSCA chief counsel at the time, Richard Sprague. Burkley’s lawyer told Sprague that Burkley quote “had never been interviewed and that he has information in the Kennedy Assassination that indicates that others besides Oswald must have participated.” The conversation between Sprague and Burkley’s lawyer is documented in an HSCA memorandum from Sprague.[45]


About a year after Burkley’s lawyer contacted the HSCA, its investigators put together an affidavit for Burkley to sign which gave representations confirming the Warren Report, including that “there was no difference in the nature of the wounds at Parkland and at Bethesda.” The affidavit signed by Burkley for the HSCA contained no information related to there being additional shooters.[46]


A few years later, in 1982, Admiral Burkley spoke to author Henry Hurt. He told Hurt that “he believed that President Kennedy’s assassination was the result of a conspiracy.[47] When Hurt followed up with Burkley to schedule a more in depth interview, Burkley said that he refused to discuss any aspect of the case.[48] According to author Michael Kurtz, he also reached out to Burkley in 1983 for an interview. Kurtz says that Burkley told him there was an exit wound in the back of Kennedy’s head. When Kurtz followed up with Burkley, Burkley refused to speak further about the matter, just like he did with author Henry Hurt.[49]


When the ARRB was convened, Admiral Burkley was no longer alive. So, Jeremy Gunn, the chief counsel for the ARRB asked Burkley’s daughter, who was the executor of his estate, to sign a waiver allowing the ARRB to see if there were any records in the files of Burkley’s lawyer that are related to the assassination. At first, Burkley’s daughter said that she would sign the waiver. But, later, after Gunn followed up, she said that she would never sign the waiver and hung up on him.[50]


Given the information I just mentioned about Admiral Burkley, it seems like he had information that he wanted to get off of his chest about the assassination, but that he had second thoughts about coming forward. Warren Report defenders believe that all of this stuff about Burkley doubting the official story is just rumor. And we don’t even know for sure if Burkley ever spoke with Henry Hurt or Michael Kurtz. Those authors could have been making the whole thing up.


The reason I tend to believe that Admiral Burkley did have information that he wanted to share is that we have a written memo from the HSCA about Burkley’s lawyer contacting them. We also have documented proof that his daughter refused to sign over permission for the ARRB to receive the documents from that same lawyer. Given that the location of Burkley’s description of Kennedy’s back wound on the death certificate would make the single bullet theory impossible, I would not be surprised if Admiral Burkley did have something to say, but he (and later his daughter) just feared the consequences of saying it.


Next time on Solving JFK: We’ll put together all of the information we have discussed so far to try to make reasonable conclusions about the medical evidence. Then, we’ll have another recap and rebuttals episode focused on the medical evidence.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-bullet_theory#/media/File:Sbt_critics.jpg [2] https://history-matters.com/archive/jfk/hsca/reportvols/vol6/html/HSCA_Vol6_0028b.htm [3] Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History, p 458-459. [4] http://avstop.com/news/gun.html [5] https://history-matters.com/archive/jfk/hsca/reportvols/vol6/pdf/HSCA_Vol6_2_Shots.pdf, at 48 [6] Warren Report at 76-77. [7] https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1993/06/18/connally-takes-bullet-pieces-to-grave/1cab4644-c1be-4499-8d85-ed3bae858d17/ [8] Warren Report at 85 [9] Warren Report at 77. [10] http://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/jfk/hsca/reportvols/vol1/pdf/HSCA_Vol1_0908_8_Guinn.pdf , at 528 [11] National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers Journal, The Champion, July 2004, Comparative Bullet Lead Analysis: A Case Study in Flawed Forensics, p 14. See Death of the NAA Verdict by James DiEugenio, https://www.kennedysandking.com/john-f-kennedy-articles/death-of-the-naa-verdict [12] Id. at 17 [13] FBI Laboratory Announces Discontinuation of Lead Examinations, (Sept 1, 2005), https://archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/pressrel/press-releases/fbi-laboratory-announces-discontinuation-of-bullet-lead-examinations [14] James DiEugenio, Reclaiming Parkland, p 110. [15] Id. [16] Josiah Thompson, Six Seconds In Dallas, p74-75 [17] Warren Report at 93. [18] https://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md44/html/Image3.htm, at 4 [19] Men Who Killed Kennedy Part 1, at 27:24 [20] Men Who Killed Kennedy Part 1, at 26:45 [21] Men Who Killed Kennedy Part 7, at 30:00. [22] Id. [23] Id. [24] https://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/fl-xpm-2005-03-19-0503190172-story.html [25] William Matson Law, In the Eye of History: Disclosures in the JFK Assassination Medical Evidence at 58. [26] Law at 372-373 [27] Doug Horne, The JFK Medical Coverup, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iWWHBPy1bCk&list=PLsM7mlhDvTLYOdz8nHtaLLaOF55J4pa-2&index=6) [28] Law at 93 [29]Horne, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iWWHBPy1bCk&list=PLsM7mlhDvTLYOdz8nHtaLLaOF55J4pa-2&index=6 [30] Law 194-195 [31] http://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/pdf/md64.pdf [32] Law at p 223. 224. [33] Jerrol Custer ARRB Testimony at p 80 - https://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md177/html/md177_0003a.htm [34] Id. at 79 [35] Id. at 72-78. [36] Law at 171. [37] Law at 171-172. [38] Law at 173-74. [39] Law at 175. See also https://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md177/html/md177_0003a.htm [40] Law at 95 [41] Boyajian Report - https://www.history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md236/html/md236_0005a.htm [42] Gawler’s Funeral Home Document - https://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/pdf/md134.pdf [43] President Kennedy’s Death Certificate - https://history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md6/html/Image1.htm [44] https://history-matters.com/archive/jfk/arrb/master_med_set/md67/html/md67_0018a.htm [45] https://history-matters.com/archive/jfk/hsca/numbered_files/box_23/180-10086-10295/html/180-10086-10295_0002a.htm [46] Affidavit of Admiral George Burkley, 11/28/78. HSCA record number 180-10104-10271. Agency file number 013416 [47] https://history-matters.com/essays/jfkmed/How5Investigations/How5InvestigationsGotItWrong_6.htm#_edn380 [48] Id. [49]Henry Hurt, Reasonable Doubt, p 48-49 [50] Final Report of the Assassinations Records Review Board at p 131 - https://ia601203.us.archive.org/7/items/AssassinationsRecordsReviewBoard/Final%20Report%20of%20the%20Assassinations%20Records%20Review%20Board.pdf

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