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  • Matt Crumpton

Ep 45: The General Walker Shooting


Edwin Walker was a decorated army general who was known for his service in World War II and Korea.[i]President Kennedy relieved General Walker of his command in West Germany in 1961 for attempting to indoctrinate troops and telling them how to vote.[ii] Before President Kennedy, Walker also had friction  with presidents Eisenhower and Truman for similar reasons.


In 1962, as a civilian, Walker showed up to lead a protest against James Meredith - the first black student who was enrolled at the University of Mississippi. After a riot broke out during the protest, General Walker was charged with sedition and insurrection. This riot led to two people being killed, six federal marshalls being shot, and hundreds of people being injured. Nevertheless, all of the charges against Walker were dismissed on January 22, 1963.[iii]


Starting in late February 1963, just a few weeks after beating his insurrection case, General Walker went on a six week, 29 city, bus tour with evangelist preacher Billy Hargis. The purpose of the tour was to alert the American public to the dangers of the civil rights movement and, of course, communism. They branded the tour Operation Midnight Ride. Thousands of people attended the rallies in each city, including many reporters.[iv] It’s around this time – at the height of his fame - that someone fires a shot at General Walker.


In this episode, we examine the evidence and witness statements related to the General Walker shooting. Did Lee Harvey Oswald fire at General Walker, or was it someone else?


The Shooting


Just two days after General Walker returned from the very successful Operation Midnight Ride speaking tour, he was working on his tax returns at a desk in his study. Suddenly, he heard a loud noise and was almost hit by a single bullet that zipped past him. Here’s how General Walker described it:


“Well, the police from the city came in to investigate a rifle shot that was fired into the house – fired through the West window, and hit the sill, and hit the wall across the room and went through the wall over the desk at which I was sitting…”[v]


Walker went on to vaguely describe who he thought was responsible for firing the shot:


“Well, there’s an enemy within this country and of course it’s the same enemy that represents the position that we should do away with the house unamerican activities committee, that we should destroy our local police forces and that we should do away with our military forces. These are the anti Americans as far as our traditions, heritage, and constitution are concerned.”[vi]


While General Walker was a virulently racist guy who had a lot of views that I don’t condone, you have to give it to him that he was consistent with his talking points. Even when he gets shot at, he somehow finds a way to immediately pivot to blaming communists. From that clip, it doesn’t sound like General Walker had any idea at all about who shot at him. So, what do we know about the details of the shooting?


The Bullet


After the single rifle shot was fired, General Walker immediately called the police. Officer Billy Gene Norvell was at the Walker residence within 5 minutes and removed a badly mutilated bullet from the wall.[vii] Officer Norvell then gave the bullet to Detective Don McElroy and his partner Ira Van Cleave, who both described the bullet as QUOTE “unknown caliber steel jacket.” Then McElroy and Van Cleave turned the bullet over to Lt. JC Day.


Back in April of 1963 when the Walker shooting happened, the only evidence that existed on what type of ammo was used is that it was a steel jacketed 30.06, as described by Detectives McElroy and Van Cleave, and as documented in the pages of the New York Times, both Dallas newspapers, and the Associated Press.[viii]  But, as we will see, after the assassination of President Kennedy, the focus of the Walker shooting turns, for the first time, to Lee Harvey Oswald.


On November 30, 1963 – 8 days after the assassination, the FBI requested the Walker bullet from the Dallas Police. FBI firearms expert Robert Frazier identified the bullet for the first time as “copper-jacketed” which would be a requirement for it to have possibly come from the Carcano rifle that was found on the 6th floor of the schoolbook depository. Frazier said it was inconclusive whether or not the Walker bullet came from the Carcano.[ix] The Warren Commission also brought in expert Joseph Nicol to give a second opinion. And, like Frazier, he was unable to conclusively link the rifle and the bullet (though he did think it was more likely than Frazier).[x]


It wasn’t just Frazier and Nicol who couldn’t make the link. A March 27, 1964 FBI Memo described testing done by FBI Agents Henry Heiberger and John Gallagher said QUOTE “the lead alloy of the bullet recovered from the attempted shooting of General Walker was different from the lead alloy of a large bullet fragment from the car in which President Kennedy was shot.” In other words, this report definitively stated that the bullet used to shoot at General Walker was not the same bullet used to shoot at President Kennedy.[xi] 


When General Walker had a chance to see the bullet that was in the national archives as the one that was fired at him, he told Robert Blakey, the HSCA chief counsel, that it was not the same bullet. He said QUOTE “The bullet before your Select Committee called the Walker bullet is not the Walker bullet. It is not the bullet that was fired at me and taken out of my house by the Dallas City Police on April 10, 1963.”[xii]


On top of that, after examining the Walker bullet, the HSCA photo panel said QUOTE: “It is still questionable whether the Mannlicher-Carcano can be linked to Oswald. But even if it was his, it could not have fired the Walker bullet. Oswald’s alleged rifle fired 6.5mm ammunition, copper jacketed, while the Walker bullet was a steel jacketed 30.06.”[xiii] 


How Was Oswald Implicated?


For about seven months, the General Walker case sat cold with no leads. Then, only after the assassination, the blame is put on Oswald for the first time. On Saturday, November 23rd, a reporter asked Dallas Police Chief Curry QUOTE “is there any connection yet between this and the firing at Major General Walker?”[xiv] We don’t know why the reporter thought there may be a connection or who the reporter was.  On the same day, Michael Paine told the Houston Post QUOTE “Oswald may have been involved in the Walker affair.”[xv] Maybe Paine was just speculating about this. We don’t exactly know why he said it. But, it’s the second documented instance of anyone saying that Oswald may have been involved in the General Walker shooting.


The next day, Sunday, November 24, a reporter named Hasso Thorstein made a transatlantic phone call to General Walker. Thorstein worked for a West German newspaper called Deutsche National Zeitung. He asked General Walker if he thought Oswald may have been the one who shot at him.[xvi]


General Walker was surprised at what was printed when the article was published in the German paper a few days later on November 29.[xvii] The article said that General Walker knew Oswald was the one who fired at him, AND that the Dallas Police were aware of this fact but didn’t do anything to stop Oswald.[xviii]


When General Walker was interviewed by the Warren Commission, he was asked whether he told the German newspaper that he knew Oswald was the one who shot at him and he responded QUOTE “No, I did not. I wouldn’t have known it. It was much later they began to tie Oswald into me and I don’t even know it yet.”[xix]  Walker added that he did not believe it was Oswald who fired the shot at him.[xx]


Against Oswald


We just went over evidence that tends to show that the bullet that was fired at General Walker could not have come from the rifle that allegedly belonged to Oswald. So, after that exonerating evidence, why is Oswald still accused by so many people of shooting at General Walker?


There are a three things that the Warren Report ultimately relies on to reach its conclusion that Oswald shot at General Walker: “A note which Oswald left for his wife on the evening of the shooting, photographs found among Oswald's possessions after the assassination of President Kennedy,….and admissions and other statements made to Marina Oswald by Oswald concerning the shooting.”[xxi] Let’s look at each of those three points, one at a time. We’ll start with the Note.


On November 30, 1963, the day after the West German newspaper story, Ruth Paine gave two books to Captain Paul Barger because she wanted to get them to Marina, who Ruth said used these books constantly. Barger gave the books to Detective John Looper, who passed them on to Russian speaking Secret Service agent Leon Gopadze.[xxii] When Gopadze opened the books, he found an undated note that was written in Russian.[xxiii] It is surprising that Gopadze is the first member of law enforcement to see this note in the book because, according to what Ruth Paine told the Warren Commission, the Dallas PD QUOTE “leaf[ed] through her books to see if anything fell out.”[xxiv]


The note had eleven numbered paragraphs. Most of it deals with administrative information about finances and Oswald’s affairs, including the PO Box, the status of bills, and money that he left for her. Other paragraphs make it clear that the purpose of this note is to explain next steps in case the author is caught. For example, it says QUOTE “Send the information as to what has happened to me to the Embassy and include newspaper clippings (should there be anything about me in the newspapers). I believe that the Embassy will come quickly to your assistance on learning everything.”[xxv] And the last paragraph says QUOTE “If I am alive and taken prisoner, the city jail is located at the end of the bridge….”[xxvi]


On December 2, after reading this note, agent Gopadze called Marina at her business manager, Jim Martin’s house and asked her about it. According to the Secret Service report, the note was constructed in very poor Russian and Marina said she didn’t know anything about the note.[xxvii]


But on the next day, December 3, Marina told the secret service during an in-person visit that, the note was written by her husband right before the General Walker shooting. On top of that, Marina says point blank that Lee admitted to her that he shot at General Walker.  She said that she didn’t tell the police because she wanted to keep the note as leverage against Lee so that he wouldn’t hit her in the future.[xxviii]


This note is eventually sent to FBI handwriting expert, James Cadigan, who concluded that it was written by Lee Harvey Oswald.[xxix] If Oswald did write the note, he did so without getting fingerprints on it. None of the 7 fingerprints on the note, matched Lee or Marina, which begs the question – whose fingerprints were they?[xxx]




According to the Warren Report, three photographs that show the home of General Edwin Walker were found among Oswald’s possessions in Ruth Paine’s garage.  Two of these pictures were taken from the exact location where the shooter would have been standing when the shot was fired at General Walker’s house.[xxxi] There are also two pictures of railroad tracks that were found which the Warren Report says were near General Walker’s home.[xxxii] These backyard photos were also linked to the Imperial Reflex Camera by the FBI, and later confirmed by the HSCA photographic panel.[xxxiii]


One of the photos shows a 1957 Chevrolet parked in front of General Walker’s house. You can see the license plate on the Chevy in the original picture, which was published by Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry in his 1969 book. But, once that photo was in the FBI’s possession, they cut out the license plate for this vehicle.[xxxiv]


As we shall soon see, the reason that this alteration to the photograph is potentially meaningful to the case is that on April 9 –the day before the shot was fired at General Walker – one of Walker’s aides, Max Claunch saw a QUOTE “Cuban or dark-complected man in a 1957 Chevy” who was driving slowly around Walker’s house several times.[xxxv] Was this Chevy the same one that was parked in the driveway? Or is this just another coincidence?


Marina’s Statements


The last thing that the Warren Commission relied upon to blame the General Walker shooting on Lee Harvey Oswald were the words of his wife, Marina. She told FBI agents, the Warren Commission, and her biographer, Priscilla Johnson, that her husband made detailed written plans to shoot at General Walker. Then, he actually followed through with those plans and fired a shot.  


Marina also says that Lee took the photos of General Walker’s home and the nearby railroad tracks using the Imperial Reflex camera. She says the photos were part of his planning for assassinating General Walker. In addition to these photos, Marina says Lee had a notebook with detailed written plans for the General Walker attack. At Marina’s urging, she says Oswald destroyed the notebook.[xxxvi] But, if Oswald was worried about getting caught, he would have also needed to destroy the guilty sounding note that he allegedly left for Marina and the photographs of Walker’s house that were found among his possessions. She said the he also had a bus routes and a map.


Marina said that Lee told her that he took his rifle with him on a bus to practice shooting at Love Field. This is almost impossible to believe because Love Field was then, just like today, an airport. Marina claimed that after the shooting, Lee buried the rifle in a field near the railroad tracks.[xxxvii]


Taking what Marina Oswald says at face value, her husband is guilty. She says that he flat out admitted it. So, if you think there is something going on other than Oswald acting alone, you’ll need to have an explanation for these statements from Marina, where she says she took the backyard photos, that Oswald did possess the guns shown in the photos, and that Oswald confessed to shooting at General Walker.


But, if you have doubts about the veracity of what Marina is saying, you wouldn’t be the first. Fredda Scobey, a Warren Commission staffer, sent a memo to Commissioner Richard Russell about whether Marina was being truthful. In the memo, Scobey asks whether it makes sense to continue to question Marina given how many things she got wrong or lied about already. Scobey said QUOTE “Marina directly lied on at least 2 occasions. Her answers could be a skillful parry of the questions. It does seem to me that if her testimony lacks credibility there is no reason for sheltering her. The above spots where her veracity was not tested are perfectly obvious to any person reading the report in connection with the transcript, and it might become a policy matter whether this decision to brush her feathers tenderly is well advised.”[xxxviii]


Marina also told the Warren Commission that Oswald also attempted to kill Richard Nixon at a time when Nixon was nowhere near Texas. While the Commission accepted most of Marina’s testimony, they ruled out the part about Oswald trying to kill Nixon.[xxxix]  In 1978, the HSCA wrote a 29 page report titled “Marina Oswald Porter’s Statements of Contradictory Nature.” The HSCA concluded that they could not agree with the Warren Commission on Oswald’s involvement in the Walker incident simply because of Marina’s lack of credibility, saying QUOTE “we regretfully refuse to accept the judgment of the Commission in regard to the Walker shooting, hoping that its prides and prejudices were a result of error and not expedience.”[xl]


The de Mohrenschildts See The Rifle


According to the Warren Report, on the evening of Saturday, April 13, three days after the General Walker shooting, George and Jeanne de Mohrenschildt stopped by the Oswalds’ Neely Street apartment to bring an Easter gift for June. Jeanne de Mohrenschildt told the Warren Commission that she saw a rifle with a scope on it in the closet. She then told George, about it, and he said to Oswald jokingly, “did you take a pot shot at Walker by any chance?” After that, de Mohrenschildt said that Oswald acted weird and said that he was just using the gun for target shooting.[xli] George said he never actually saw the gun.


Marina, for her part, contradicts the de Mohrenschildt story. When asked by the Commission if she showed the de Mohrenschildts the rifle, she said QUOTE “I know that de Mohrenschildts had said the rifle had been shown to him, but I don’t remember that.”[xlii] She also said that de Mohrenschildt asked if Oswald shot General Walker as soon as he walked in the door, which is not what he says.[xliii] Most importantly, Marina told the FBI that Oswald returned home with the rifle under his raincoat on a bus on the Sunday after the Walker shooting – which would be April 14th. But, since the de Mohrenschildts visited on Saturday, April 13th, it is not possible that the rifle could have been there per Marina’s own timeline.[xliv]


In Defense of Oswald


While we’ve mentioned a few details so far that seem to potentially incriminate Oswald when it comes to the General Walker shooting, there is also some evidence that makes it seem impossible that Oswald alone could have been the shooter.


First, there are reports of strange vehicles at General Walker’s house in the days before the shooting. Robert Surrey, an aide to General Walker, told police that four nights before the shooting he saw two men wearing suits and ties, sitting in a brown or purple 1963 Ford behind General Walker’s house around 9pm.[xlv] They got out of the car and walked around General Walker’s home and looked in the windows. They then saw that someone was watching them, got back in the Ford, and left. Surrey followed the vehicle to downtown Dallas but he lost track of it. It had no license plate. And Surrey said neither man looked like Oswald.[xlvi]


Then, one day before the shooting, on April 9, another one of Walker’s aides, Max Claunch saw a QUOTE “Cuban or dark-complected man in a 1957 Chevy” who was driving slowly around Walker’s house several times.[xlvii] What is even more suspicious about this vehicle is that a similar vehicle is pictured in front of General Walker’s house in one of the photos that Oswald allegedly took, but the license plate was later cut out from the photo by the FBI. But, who knows, maybe that’s just another weird coincidence.


Next, there is the testimony from 15 year old Walter Coleman, who lived next door to the church and close to the open field near General Walker’s house – close to the area where the shot came from. After he heard what he thought was a car backfire, he stepped up on a bike and so he could look over the fence where he was able to see clearly because of the flood light at the church. Coleman said he then saw two men get into a beige 1950s Ford. One man he described as being about 19 or 20 years old, white, 5 foot 10, with dark bushy hair and a large nose. The other man Coleman didn’t see as clearly, but he said he was about 6 foot 1 and 200 pounds. Coleman said that he had seen photos of Lee Harvey Oswald and neither man resembled Oswald.[xlviii] Coleman’s testimony is consistent with the initial findings of the FBI and Dallas Police in the Walker Shooting, which is that there were two men who were seen together at the shooting.[xlix]


Walter Coleman’s story is somewhat supported by Scott Hansen, who was attending a boy scout meeting at the church behind General Walker’s house on the evening of April 10th. He told the FBI that he saw a black and white 1958 Chevy next to the fence that separated the Church parking lot from General Walker’s house.  He said that he saw the same car parked in the same place on a previous Wednesday, but he never saw the car again after the night of the shooting.[l]


In addition to the statements from Coleman and Hansen, housekeepers in the home across the street from General Walker on Avondale also claim that they saw a suspicious man on the night of the shooting. Ruby and Edgar Boggs worked for the homeowner, Samuel Gilbert as live-in house keepers. They relayed the story to their daughter of seeing a man running through the alley behind General Walker’s house after the shooting. Her parents weren’t sure, but they think the man ran into Gilbert’s driveway, and possibly hid in his basement.[li]


This story doesn’t exactly match up with what Coleman said, which is that there were two men in the vehicle, who then departed immediately after the shots were fired. This would mean that the Boggs were either mistaken about what they saw, or if they are correct and Coleman is correct, it would mean that there could have been a third person. But, why would that person hide across the street when the other two people took a car? It’s hard to make sense of the Boggs story, as relayed by their daughter, Shirley.


While the Boggs’ testimony regarding the night of the Walker shooting doesn’t fit neatly with the other evidence, it’s worth noting that Samuel Gilbert was a close associate of none other than Jack Ruby, who would go on to murder Oswald. The Boggs and their daughter, Shirley, who was an adult at the time and remembers the interactions, says that from 1960 to 1963, Jack Ruby visited the Gilbert home for dinner on numerous occasions.


It turns out that Samuel Gilbert and Jack Ruby went way back. Their families both emigrated from Poland to New York. Then, they left New York together to move to Chicago. After that, Jack and Samuel moved to Dallas. The Boggs also told their daughter that Gilbert frequently visited a friend in New Orleans named Ferrie. As we’ll soon discuss, David Ferrie is a mysterious man with many connections in the JFK Assassination. If Gilbert really knew David Ferrie and visited him often, that is potentially a relevant link.


When Gilbert found out that Ruby shot Oswald, the Boggs said that he almost passed out. To further complicate the story, Samuel Gilbert died a few months after the assassination, in February of 1964, supposedly after cutting his own wrist. Gilbert’s funeral had a closed casket and was attended by only 6 people. Mrs. Boggs believed that Gilbert faked his death and moved to Israel because he had an Israeli passport that Mrs. Boggs had seen before.[lii]


Another reason to doubt Oswald’s sole guilt in the Walker shooting is that Walker actually hired a private investigator.[liii] According to General Walker, the investigation revealed that brothers Larrie and Bobbie Schmidt, local right wing activists, may have connected with Oswald and may have been responsible for the shooting. Oswald, as we know, was outwardly a left wing Marxist. So, if the results of Walker’s investigation are accurate, that would put the Marxist Oswald hanging out with the right-wing Schmidt brothers, which raises the question – what is really going on here


Another potential reason that Oswald alone could not have shot at General Walker is that Oswald may have had an alibi in the form of dinner with Marina, Ruth, and Michael Paine. Remember, the Walker shooting is on April 10th. Michael Paine told the Warren Commission that he picked up the Oswald’s at their Neely Street house for dinner with the Paines in Irving on April 10th.[liv] And Paine didn’t even correct himself. He relied on Commission counsel Wesley Liebeler to do that. Liebeler interjected later in Paine’s testimony saying QUOTE “For the benefit of the Commission, the record indicates it was about April 2, 1963 that [Michael Paine picked up the Oswalds for dinner]”.[lv]


Ruth claimed that the dinner was on April 2 because she had a calendar. When we look at Ruth Paine’s calendar for 1963, it does have a notation on April 2 for this dinner. But, on April 10 of that same calendar, the word “Marina” is written in Russian with an arrow pointing from April 10 to April 11. Paine was never asked about the meaning of this April 10th Marina notation.


Finally, if Marina’s story of Oswald burying a rifle in the dirt in a field is accurate, we would expect to find some evidence of it. But, when the FBI microscopically examined the rifle, there were no traces of soil, which, on top of him not having any tools for digging, makes it very unlikely that Lee buried a rifle under the dirt.[lvi]




Looking at all of the evidence together, the arguments that Oswald acted alone to shoot General Walker are that his wife says that he confessed, there were photos in his possession of General Walker’s house, and there is an incriminating note that Oswald supposedly left for Marina which the FBI expert said was in Oswald’s handwriting. If true, this is extremely persuasive evidence.


But, upon further examination, Marina’s testimony is all over the place and is not reliable, as noted by both the Warren Commission and the HSCA. And the circumstances of finding the note are suspicious since the police were supposed to have already leafed through the books in the house. Still, I understand how someone could say that Oswald probably did shoot at General Walker because of Marina’s testimony and the FBI expert confirmation of Oswald’s handwriting on the note.


Nevertheless, like the HSCA, I believe it is impossible that the bullet fired at General Walker came from the Mannlicher-Carcano that Oswald allegedly owned. The original story of the 30.06 steel jacket bullet, plus the FBI Heiberger and Gallagher memo makes it conclusive that the alleged Oswald Carcano did not fire the shot at Walker. Also, the only eyewitness who spoke to authorities at the time says that there were two men who left in a car, and someone in a car was casing out the location days earlier.


This leaves us with two potential scenarios: One is that Oswald was involved in firing a shot at General Walker, but he did it with the help of at least one other person, including using that person’s rifle and get-away vehicle. That would potentially explain the note and the photos, but raises new questions about who Oswald was working with. This scenario does not rule out Oswald being involved because he was told to be involved, for example, as part of an intelligence assignment.


The other potential scenario is that Oswald was a pure patsy in the General Walker shooting, which was done by two other people, using a different rifle. If that is the case, then someone would have had to affirmatively frame Oswald with the Note and the photos, and Marina and Jeanne de Mohrenschildt would both have to be lying.


NEXT TIME ON SOLVING JFK: We’ll be joined by, director Max Good. Max was the creative force behind the 2022 film, The Assassination and Mrs. Paine, which looks at the role of Ruth Paine as it relates to her experience with the Oswalds. It’s a great documentary, and if you haven’t seen it, I highly recommend that you check it out.


After we speak with Max, we resume following the activities of Lee Harvey Oswald about 7 months before the assassination, as he moves from Dallas to New Orleans.

[ii] John Armstrong, Harvey & Lee at 437.

[iii] Walker’s acquittal in the Riot trial didn’t stop attorney general Robert F Kennedy from ordering Walker to be detained in a mental institution for a 90 day evaluation. Walker was eventually released after only 5 days of being committed after an outcry from the ACLU and the public.

[vii] General Offense Report by McElroy and Van Cleave (F-49156), 4/10/63.

[viii] James DiEugenio, Reclaiming Parkland at 76.

[ix] Armstrong at 511. (Since Frazier couldn’t link the bullet to the rifle, the Warren Commission brought in Joseph Nicol who worked for the Illinois Bureau of Criminal Investigation to give a second opinion. Nicol thought it was more likely that the bullet could have come from the Carcano, but neither expert was able to conclusively link the rifle and the bullet. Warren Report at 187.)

[x] Warren Report at 187.

[xi] FBI Memorandum of 3/27/1964 from Jevons to Courad; see also DiEugenio at 77.

[xii] Armstrong at 511.

[xiv] CE 2146.

[xv] Probe, Vol. 5, No. 1, “The Paines Know” by Carol Hewett, p 11.

[xvi] CE 387.

[xvii] Warren Report at 425.

[xviii] Warren Commission Testimony of General Walker at 426 - There was also another article that was published in the National Enquirer that said that Oswald shot Ruby and that Ruby was the one who funded the shooting, which came out later, after the West German paper. (CE 837)

[xx] Id. at 426.

[xxi] Warren Report at 183.

[xxiii] CE 1403; Armstrong at 51.

[xxiv] WC Testimony of Ruth Paine, Resumed, 3H 86-87.

[xxv] Warren Report at 184.

[xxvi] Id.

[xxviii] CE 1785.

[xxix] Warren Report at 184.

[xxx] Gerald McKnight, Breach of Trust at 56.  

[xxxi] Warren Report at 185.

[xxxiii] Warren Report at 185.

[xxxiv] Jessie Curry, JFK Assassination File (1969); Armstrong at 509.

[xxxv] Anthony Summers, Not In Your Lifetime, at 214.

[xxxvi] Warren Commission Testimony of Marina Oswald, 11H 293-294;


Marina later told the HSCA that Oswald was able to easily travel on the bus with the rifle on the way to shoot at General Walker because he wore a raincoat that Marina says he was able to conceal the rifle underneath. I checked and on April 10, 1963 at the time when Oswald would have boarded the bus to go shoot Walker, the temperature was 85 degrees and there was no precipitation at all in Dallas that day. (

[xxxviii] Memorandum from Freda Scobey to Senator Richard Russell, June 29, 1964, available Armstrong, Harvey & Lee,  Folder March 63-15,

[xxxix] Warren Report at 189.

[xl] HSCA synopsis of Marina Porter testimony; Armstrong at 520.

[xli] Warren Report at 282.

[xliv] CE 1403, p 777.

[xlv] Dallas Police Department Offence Report, 4/10/63, by Van Cleave and McElroy.

[xlvi] Warren Commission Testimony of Robert A. Surrey, 5H 446.  

[xlvii] Summers at 214.

[xlix] Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History, at 690-694.  

[l] CD 1245, p113, FBI Interview of Scott Hansen, 6/4/64.

[lii] Id.

[lv] Id.

[lvi] FBI Expert Stombaugh 4H 81.

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